Drawing is rarely present in children younger than 2-2.5 years old (Piaget, 1962). Before about age 4, children draw scribbles. At first they are just scribbles, then they evolve into different types of scribbles to represent different things. By age 4 they are drawing recognizable shapes. Continue reading
Along with the cognitive developmental stages of Jean Piaget and the social/moral developmental stages of Lawrence Kohlberg (and also of Robert Selman), there is the research of James Fowler on stages of faith. Fowler’s stages of faith are not limited to people who follow an organized religion, or even any religion or spiritual practice at all. They’re more about the way a person sees the world, the way they go about believing in things—religious, spiritual or secular—than anything.
Here is a brief summary of Table 1.2 in Cerridwen (2014). You can also find the complete table here. This is the numbering system I’m going to be using on this blog.
This is just a brief overview for reference, and it’s rough because I’m going from memory.
This is the level of animal intelligence. In humans it typically extends from birth to 18-24 months old. It involves being able to logically deduce the existence of an object from a series of events. In the later stages, people in this period can analyze one object or situation at a time. Many animals reach stage 5. A few reach stage 6. Dogs reach stage 6 but cats only reach stage 5. Continue reading